Diabetes in Sportsmen
There is a myth that people who have diabetes can’t play sports, especially count for the professional sports achievements. But the medical experts and scientists have already debunked this myth.
The matter is that exercising is a crucial part of diabetes management. The majority of people suffering from diabetes can securely go in for sports at both professional and non-professional levels by simply taking into account some precautions.
Both general internal medicine and sports medicine specialists manage people who practice sports in order to assess the probability of diabetes complications prior to starting taking sports or alter the exercising regimen in accordance with the already existing diabetes complications.
The sportsmen who have to inject insulin or take oral insulin secretagogues may stand the hazard of exercise-related instant or postpone hypoglycemia. The athletes with diabetes are recommended to practice resistance training and regular aerobic exercising combined together.
The sportsmen dependent on insulin intake have to also take carbohydrate prior and after training and even within the course of training provided that the duration of exercise bout exceeds one hour. The correction of insulin dosage according to the training schedule is one more well-working approach for avoiding hypoglycemia in diabetic athletes. Also, for the insulin-dependent sportsmen, it’s important to check the blood sugar levels right prior, within, and after training.
Once the diabetic sportsman has found out the availability of considerable hyperglycemia prior to training, the sportsman must refuse from training. Otherwise, the exercising may dramatically worsen hyperglycemia and cause a dangerous diabetes complication called ketoacidosis.
All diabetic athletes must know the hypoglycemia symptoms such as headache, faintness, chilliness, sweats, racing heart, face numbness, vision impairment, coordination disturbance, etc. And if hypoglycemia yet happens during exercising, the athlete should take immediately absorbable glucose without any delay.
Also, the sports nutrition pattern of athletes with diabetes should include low-carb diets which assist these people in the better regulation of blood sugar levels.
Diabetes Risk Factors
There are some factors which make the probability of diabetes development substantially grow.
Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors
A person is much more predisposed to have type 1 diabetes if this person:
- Is a child or an adolescent
- Has a parent(s) or sibling with a diagnosed diabetes
- Is a carrier of certain genes responsible for the development of diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors
A person is much more prone to type 2 diabetes if this person:
- Is 45 years old or older
- Is overweight or obese
- Has a family history of diabetes sufferers
- Suffers from high blood pressure
- Has HDL cholesterol levels which drop below 40 mg/dL
- Has an experience of gestational diabetes or gave a birth to a baby whose birth weight exceeds 9 pounds
- Had polycystic ovary syndrome
- Leads physically inactive lifestyle
- Is the Native American, African American, Latin American, Asian-Pacific Islander, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Asian American, and Alaska Native
If the healthcare practitioner knows that you are in the risk group, the doctor will control your state of health more precisely, help you regulate your body weight by means of the medications and natural fat burners, perform a physical exam and blood tests more frequently, and recommend to change the lifestyle.
Early Signs of Diabetes
There is a range of early signs which may quite clearly signal about the development of diabetes. The following signs refer to both types of this disease:
- Extreme hunger feeling and tiredness: The consumed food is turned into glucose which is further transformed into energy by the body. However, the body requires insulin for making glucose a source of energy. If there is no sufficient amount of insulin or if there is insulin resistance, glucose will not deliver energy to the body cells. This leads to constant fatigue and everlasting hunger.
- Enormous thirst and frequent urination: When the glucose levels in blood go far higher the normal range in diabetics, the body is no longer able to reabsorb blood sugar that goes via kidneys. Due to enormously high concentration of blood sugar, kidneys can’t manage to normalize it. This urges the body to produce a larger amount of urine than usually. Since the body intensely utilizes available fluids for making urine and urination frequency increases, dehydration develops. And a diabetic also starts suffering from excessive thirst.
- Dry mouth and skin itching: Very high glucose levels contribute to fluid deprivation in the body because the body uses all fluids for the synthesis of urine. That’s why a diabetic experiences mouth dryness which is a symptom of overall body dehydration. Also, diabetics typically have very dry skin that is constantly itching.
- Blurred vision: A person with diabetes may frequently lose vision sharpness and can’t see any fine details. Deterioration of focus happens because diabetes-induced dehydration leads to the drastic decrease in fluid levels in the lens of the eyes.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
Though there are some common diabetes symptoms, it’s possible to distinguish some symptoms peculiar exactly to type 1 diabetes:
- Unexplained body weight reduction: Being unable to derive energy from the food a person consumes, the body gets energy necessary for living by melting fat deposits and destroying muscles. That’s why a diabetic can notice the weight loss even without taking the top-notch weight loss pills and amending the nutrition pattern.
- Nausea and vomiting: In case the body starts getting rid of all own fat available in the body, ketones emerge in large amounts. When ketone levels grow enormously, this may even lead to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis which can endanger life. This condition is accompanied with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Specific symptoms of type 2 diabetes may occur if glucose levels remain substantially increased for an extended period of time. These symptoms include:
- Yeast infections: Diabetics of both female and male gender can start suffering from yeast infections. Glucose nourishes yeast and the infection is flourishing. This infection develops in warm, delicate, and humid environment such as around genitals, under breasts, and between toes and fingers.
- Slow wound healing: When blood sugar remains too much elevated for a long time, this contributes to blood circulation impairment and provokes nerve damage. This results in the prolongation of time needed to the body for wound healing.
- Numb and painful legs or feet. This symptom emerges due to the nerve damage.
Common Signs of Diabetes Complications
When diabetes is left unaddressed, the signs of diabetes complications develop:
- Quick body weight increase even if a person is physically active and takes OTC testosterone boosters
- Slowly curable wounds
- Constant yeast infections
- Substantial vision deterioration
- Progressing numbness and tingling of extremities
- Acanthosis nigricans
If the situation with enormously high glucose levels remains unaddressed for a long time, this leads to the occurrence of following complications in the long run:
- Eye diseases: These diseases develop in diabetics because the eye fluid levels remain unstable, the tissues are swollen, and the blood vessels inside the eyes are impaired. This results in diabetic macular edema, glaucoma, cataracts, and diabetic retinopathy. Also, substantial reduction in vision and even complete vision loss.
- Foot issues: Diabetes deteriorates the blood circulation in the feet making the feet receive less blood than necessary and also causing nerve damage. Diabetic neuropathy is then followed with pain, tingling, and loss of sensation in the feet.
- Dental conditions and gum disease: Enormous concentration of blood sugar in saliva contributes to the abnormal increase in pathogenic bacteria in the mouth. Mouth is a wet and warm place where there is the best environment for bacteria growth. These bacteria use such environment along with food and hence create plaques rich in starches and sugars. Such plaque buildups are the frequent causes of bad breath and gum disease. The latter one can finally lead to tooth decay and different kinds of cavities.
- Heart diseases and stroke: These diabetes complications are the most dangerous ones because they endanger a person’s life. These complications occur since improperly treated or untreated diabetes may deal a devastating blow to the nerves and blood vessels responsible for the normal functioning of heart.
- Kidney disease: The blood vessels in kidneys stop performing their functions adequately. This causes many kidney issues. Also, the diabetes patients often suffer from hypertension which in its turn is harmful for kidneys.
- Skin disease: Small blood vessels which embed skin are negatively affected with diabetes. This leads to the worsening of blood supply to skin. Due to this, the diabetes sufferers may experience different skin conditions, including frequent skin infectious diseases.
- Nerve issues: The diabetes patients are often diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy which develops due to the impairment of small blood vessels responsible for the oxygenation and nourishment of nerves.
- Bladder and genital issues: The function of bladder and sex organs may suffer due to the insufficient blood delivery to the nerves and vessels available there.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
The medical specialists still can’t come to a common opinion concerning the exact causes of type 1 diabetes. But the intake of medically approved carb blockers will surely not go amiss for each diabetes sufferer.
At the present moment, the scientists proved that type 1 diabetes develops when the immune system, which normally must kill infectious agents, starts perceive like enemies and get rid of insulin-synthesizing beta cells present in the pancreas.
According to the studies, the availability of certain genes may provoke the occurrence of type 1 diabetes in some persons. Thus, special variations of some genes regulate the production of proteins which are extremely important for the adequate work of the human immune system.
Also, viral infections may negatively affect the immune system urging it to start coming against the pancreas. Multiple viruses are able to trigger the emergence of type 1 diabetes. Enteroviruses take the lead among the viruses contributing to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Among the other dangerous viruses, there are cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, and rotavirus.