What Is Hematology?
Hematology is a medical specialty that deeply investigates blood, organs that create blood, and blood medical conditions. Also, hematology is a part of internal medicine responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of blood diseases and malignancies such as sickle-cell anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophilia. In addition, this medicine branch copes with the etiology, pathology, prognosis, physiology, and prevention of medical conditions associated with blood.
It’s impossible to overestimate the importance of blood in the human body which can’t exist without this vital liquid. The extremely crucial blood functions include but are not limited to the transportation of nutrients and oxygen throughout the whole body; regulation of water and acidity balance in the body; assistance in the resistance to various diseases.
At the same time, the blood is a very sensitive fluid. Its characteristics greatly depend on many factors and particularly the individual’s lifestyle. Thus, the intake of different medications and fat burners, nutrition, physical activity, bad habits, stress, positive emotions, etc. have a strong either favorable or negative impact on the quality of blood.
When the blood problems occur, they very negatively change the way the human body functions. And first of all, the lymphatic system, which is responsible for the removal of waste from the body, suffers.
Many blood diseases develop mainly due to the occurrence of issues with bone marrow. The latter one is a special tissue available in some bones throughout the body that produces the majority of blood cells.
Hematology is targeted at finding out why the mentioned issues happen, how these diseases damage the human health, and how to effectively overcome them.
Who Is Hematologist?
Hematologist is a doctor who performs different tests and medical exams in order to set a correct diagnosis and determine the best treatment methods for the blood-related diseases.
Hematologists specialize in the functioning of lymphatic organs as well as bone marrow. These doctors can detect blood count abnormalities and platelet abnormalities. These medical experts also cure the diseases of organs such as spleen, lymphoid tissue, thymus, and lymph nodes.
What Do Hematologists Do?
The hematologists typically carry out the following procedures to find other whether a person has any blood diseases and create a well-working treatment strategy:
- Complete blood cell count: Such a testing enables a hematologist to find out whether a patient has blood cancer, inflammatory medical condition, and anemia.
- Platelet count: The diagnosis of many blood diseases greatly relies on the results of this test.
- Blood enzyme tests: It’s possible to distinguish a wide range of such tests, assisting in setting a diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. And heart attack is one of them.
- Bone marrow biopsy: It’s a very effective tool for diagnosing thrombocytopenia, anemia, and cancer.
Key Hematologist Tests
Depending on the medical condition, like bleeding diseases or blood clotting diseases, the hematologist is suspecting in a particular patient to have, the hematologist may recommend to do the following major screening and diagnostic tests. These tests considerably facilitate the process of setting a correct diagnosis:
- Lymph node biopsy: It implies taking out lymph node in order to assess it with the use of microscope. The lymph nodes are tiny glands engaged into the production of white blood cells which are aimed at overcoming infections. The lymph nodes can contain the infectious agents. Breast cancer and other cancer types can also invade the lymph nodes.
- Genetic testing: This kind of diagnostic is required for proving the diagnosis of some hematological cancer types and determining the proper treatment approach. When the doctor manages to find out the underlying genetic abnormality and understand the inheritance pattern, this will help the members of one family to figure out all at-risk relatives. Genetic testing makes diagnosing hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and other inherited medical conditions.
- Laboratory tests: There is an abundance of laboratory tests which assist hematologists in diagnosing cancer, infectious disease, anemia, clotting diseases, and bleeding diseases. These tests include but are not limited to erythrocyte sedimentation rate, complete blood count, prothrombin time, fibrinogen test, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other blood plasma and platelet tests.
When You Should See a Hematologist
The family physician may refer an individual to a hematologist in case of the occurrence of the particular conditions and symptoms:
- Anemia symptoms: Such symptoms include pale skin, cold hand and feet, dizziness, headache, tiredness, weakness, brittle nails, chest pain, entotic sound, difficulty breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, and racing heart. The relief of anemia symptoms demands a proper nutrition plan. And the intake of strongest non prescription appetite suppressants is not an impediment to it.
- Leukemia symptoms: These symptoms include tiredness, weakness, chills, fever, headache, swollen tonsils, bleeding gums, swollen gums, liver enlargement, unexplained body weight reduction, night sweats, bone pain, and pale skin covered with tiny red spots.
- Sickle cell anemia symptoms: Among these symptoms, there are vision deterioration, dark urine, hand and feet swelling, growth inhibition, and pain.
- Myeloma symptoms: Excessive protein levels confirmed with urine and blood tests, insufficient kidney performance, anemia, excessive calcium levels, osteoporosis, body weight reduction, bone ache, bone fractures, and frequently-occurring infectious diseases belong to these symptoms.
- Lymphoma symptoms: The list of these symptoms contains trouble breathing, tiredness, body weight reduction, chest pain, fever, weakness, swollen lymph nodes, itchy skin, rash, and sweats.
How Blood Disorders Are Classified
A person may either inherit or acquire a blood disorder. The development of a blood disorder may also happen because of infection contamination, acute intoxication, prescription medication adverse reaction, or nutrient-deprived eating pattern. Thus, some blood disorders occur if a person’s nutrition plan doesn’t include enough vitamin B12, vitamin K, or iron even provided that the patient takes OTC carb blocker pills or any other natural supplements.
Blood medical conditions are also classified according to the type of blood components, which the disorder affects. Thus, the disorder may afflict:
- White blood cells: These cells are responsible for overcoming the attacks of infectious agents. Among these cells, it’s possible to distinguish monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils.
- Red blood cells: They perform an extremely crucial function of transporting oxygen to all cells throughout the whole body.
- Platelets: These blood cells take a direct part in ceasing bleeding and don’t let a human be bleeding to death
- Plasma: It is engaged into transportation of different components such as procoagulant factors and anticoagulant factors.
Symptoms of Blood Disorders
The symptoms which a particular patient may experience are determined with the type of blood components afflicted with a certain blood disorder. The blood disorder manifestations can be either mild or severe, depending on the disease stage.
Thus, the symptoms of white blood cell disorders are as follows:
- High frequency of infectious diseases
- Too long duration of wound-healing process
- Feeling of exhaustion without a reason
- Body weight reduction without a reason
The symptoms of red blood cells disorders are as follows:
- Feeling of exhaustion and sluggishness without a reason
- Difficulty breathing
- Faintness and sickness
- Racing heart
- Muscle weakness even provided that a person takes natural top-class testosterone booster supplements
- Loss of concentration
- Memory impairment
- Pale skin
The symptoms of platelet and clotting blood disorders are as follows:
- Uncontrolled bleeding and long time needed to stop bleeding
- Non-healing or long-healing wounds
- Abnormal bruising when bruises appear from virtually nowhere
- Sudden bleeding from gums, nose, digestive tract, or genitourinary tract without any reason
Life-Threatening Symptoms of Blood Disorders
There are the blood disorders which may directly endanger a person’s life. It’s necessary to instantly request medical assistance if a person has the following very serious symptoms:
- Bleeding which can’t be stopped even after the placement of tourniquet
- Chest ache, difficulty breathing, and racing heart or irregular heartbeat
- Lightheadedness, faintness, or loss of consciousness
- Vision deterioration, exhaustion, facial paralysis, or hemiparesis that affects one side of the body
- Vomiting blood, coughing up blood, or intense rectal bleeding
In case the blood disorder symptoms don’t stop but, to the contrary, continue aggravating, you should hurry up with visiting a healthcare provider. The sooner you get a right diagnosis, the more favorable prognosis for a blood disease you can count on.
Causes of Blood Disorders
The development of blood diseases happens when some abnormalities appear in one or several blood components. A large number of blood diseases belongs to the inherited medical conditions. It means that a child receives defective genes from parents instead of normal genes. The mutations happen, and children then inherit the blood diseases like thrombophilias, hemophilias, sickle cell anemia, and others.
Besides the inherited blood disorders, there are also many acquired blood disorders which develop for a diversity of reasons. A person may acquire a certain blood disease at any stage of life. Among others, nutrition imbalance/deprivation, intake of some strong drugs, and medical conditions which damage organs responsible for the formation and function of blood are the most frequent causes of blood disorders. When these causes are combined with genetic predisposition to blood diseases, which is inherited from parents, the probability of being affected with a blood disease dramatically grows. This is in fact how blood oncology issues emerge. It’s possible to either inherit an abnormal gene or suffer from a spontaneous gene mutation so that a person could become more prone to certain blood cancer types.
Risk Factors for Blood Disorders
There are different risk factors which may raise the probability of blood disease occurrence depending on the disease type.
In case of inherited blood disorders, the availability of family members with blood disorders makes you run a much higher risk of suffering from a blood disorder even regardless of lifestyle or intake of top-notch HGH supplements. And if someone from your family had blood cancer, your chances of getting this disease drastically increase as well.
There are also other major risks for blood disorders. They are as follows:
- Aging changes in the body
- Action of some hazardous chemicals
- Intake of some very powerful medications
- Autoimmune disorders
- Thyroid, kidney or liver medical conditions
- Overweight and obesity which though can be corrected with the best diet pills recommended by medical specialists
- Bad habits such as smoking
- High cholesterol levels
- Heart diseases and hypertension
- Immobility which develops due to serious diseases or obesity which can be though reversed with the help of well thought-out low-carb diets
- Surgical procedures
You should help a healthcare provider figure out all your risk factors. If you manage to effectively determine whether any risk factors for blood disorders really put your health and life into jeopardy, it will be possible to timely take the preventable measures to avoid blood disorder development and save your life.